Beitrag zum UNFPA-UNICEF Joint Programme to Eliminate FGM
The goal of the Joint Programme Phase III (2018-2021) is to accelerate efforts towards the reduction of Female Genital Mutilation (FGM), fulfilling the rights of girls and women by realizing social and gender norms transformation by 2021 and thereby contributing to the elimination of FGM by 2030.
The global theory of change embraces a holistic and multi-sectoral approach that supports ending FGM at the household, community, national and global levels while also introducing strategic and innovative interventions:
Outcome 1: Countries have an enabling environment for the elimination of FGM practices at all levels and in line with human rights standards.
Outcome 2: Girls and women are empowered to exercise and express their rights by transforming social and gender norms in communities to eliminate FGM.
Outcome 3: Girls and women access appropriate, quality and systemic services for FGM prevention, protection and care.
Outcome 4: Countries have better capacity to generate and use evidence and data for policymaking and improving programming.
The Joint Programme’s direct impact population are girls and women at risk of or affected by FGM, especially in hard-to-reach areas in 16 countries: Burkina Faso, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Gambia, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Kenya, Mali, Mauritania, Nigeria, Senegal, Somalia (interventions focused on Somaliland), Sudan and Uganda. The Joint Programme will target approximately 8 million girls who will receive FGM preventive services and 4 million who will receive protection and care services. In addition, more than 8,200 new communities, covering approximately 18.45 million people, will make public declarations abandoning FGM across 16 countries, helping to ensure that girls will remain free from FGM.
The following activities will contribute to achieving the overall goal and outcomes of the Joint Programme:
Engage with regional entities to issue political decisions and peer review mechanisms to track progress at national level;
Support implementation of laws and policies and line ministries’ to design and implement costed plans, strategies & budgets for FGM;
Convene CSOs, youth and Government dialogue;
Forge partnerships with medical associations, Promote interpersonal, intergenerational and community dialogue, including with religious leaders;
Set up Surveillance systems;
Amplify social norms change with organized diffusion of knowledge, attitudes, positive expectations;
Equip girls and women with skills;
Create spaces for dialogue between girls/boys/women/men;
Build preventive capacity and skills of service providers;
Support the development and application of standard tools and guidelines;
Mainstream FGM in Sexual and Reproductive health, Child health, Education, and Legal sector;
Train and mobilize medical associations for FGM prevention;
Develop and test frameworks and tools on social norms measurement;
Establish an online platform for knowledge management and organize forums for dissemination, discussion and use of practices and evidence;
Build capacity for uptake of evidence in policy development.
It is estimated that more than 200 million girls and women have experienced FGM in 30 countries across three continents, with half of them living in three countries: Egypt, Ethiopia and Indonesia. More than three million girls are at risk of FGM every year, with most girls cut before the age of 15. FGM is internationally recognized as a violation of human rights and constitutes an extreme form of violence against girls and women. Girls and women subjected to FGM are at risk of early marriage, dropping out of school, and reduced opportunities for growth, development and sustainable incomes. FGM involves medical, emotional, social, legal and economic repercussions at all levels of society. Given that 22 out of 30 FGM-affected countries are least-developed, these costs place a burden on personal, household, community and state economies. Since 2008, the United Nations Population Fund (UNFPA) and the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) have been implementing the Joint Programme on Eliminating Female Genital Mutilation: Accelerating Change to end FGM in one generation. The Joint Programme links community-level transformation of social norms that often drive FGM with laws banning the practice and access to quality sexual and reproductive health (SRH) and child protection services for girls and women at risk of and affected by FGM.
Today, a girl is about one-third less likely to be cut than 30 years ago. A major challenge is sustaining the achievements that have been made while addressing the population growth that puts more girls at risk of being cut.