Building drought resilience through land and water management in arid and semi-arid areas in Kenya and Uganda (phase 2)
The overall objective of the project is to improve the resilience of dryland communities to the impacts of increasingly severe and frequent drought and floods within well-managed river catchment ecosystems in Kenya and Uganda.
The project purpose is to improve the integrity of sub-catchment ecosystems of the Lower Tana River, Kenya and the Upper Aswa-Agago River, Uganda and the adaptive capacities of the local communities living there.
Result 1: Inclusive governance and self-organization at community level over land, water and other assets within catchment areas is improved;
Result 2: The integrity, diversity and functioning of natural (ecosystems/ catchments) and built (subsurface dams/boreholes) infrastructure is rehabilitated, improved and extended;
Result 3: Livelihood diversification and market developments that promote resilience are enhanced;
Result 4: Multi-stakeholder engagement, participation, learning and political support to enhance effective resilience is achieved at county/district level.
Direct project beneficiaries of phase 2 are about 201.000 people in sub-catchments Tula, Al-Amin Moju, Saka, Khorweyne, Bangale and Kasha (K); Alebtong, Lira, Otuke, Amuria and Agago (UG).
1. Development of adapted sub-catchment management plans (ASCMPs) through participatory approaches including mapping in the expanded sites in Kenya and Uganda and explore mechanisms to ensure that ASCMPs are appropriately recognized in district/county land-use plans
2. Implementation, enforcement and capacity-building around existing and new by-laws in Kenya and Uganda
3. Gender mainstreaming in implementation mechanisms for equitable engagement for women, youth, and the elderly and marginalized minorities to improve their resilience in Kenya and Uganda
4. Implementation of, and community reflection on, the priority ecosystem restoration/management actions from adapted sub-catchment management plans for arid and semi-arid land (SCMPs for ASALs)
5. Planning and installation of targeted, well-managed built infrastructure for water supply in balance with ecosystems; protection of springs, river banks through agroforestry in Kenya; delineation and branding of Malkas (watering corridors) to enhance people, livestock and wildlife access community water points
6. Carry out an assessment of potential enterprises for supporting resilience and diversifying livelihoods and further development of value chains identified in the enterprise assessment economic opportunities that can enhance livelihood diversification
7. Consolidating, expansion and further testing of the Community Environment Conservation Fund (CECF) as a sustained mechanism for communal ASCMP/SCMPs for ASALs delivery; explore the use of the Community Environment Conservation Fund (CECF) as a mechanism for producer aggregation for sustainable and diversified livelihoods
8. Development of enabling laws on environment and natural resources governance at County levels (Garissa and Tana River) in Kenya
9. Support ASAL Stakeholder Forums to lobby adoption of county ENRM bills, SCMPs for ASALs and community by-laws on ENRM in county integrated development and land-use plans
10. Action learning and lesson learnt events organized to document and disseminate best practices and lessons emanating from the project for adoption and up scaling.
Overall goal of Phase1 (2012-2014) was to improve resilience of dryland communities within selected river sub-catchments (Lower Tana catchment in Kenya and Upper Aswa-Agago catchment in Uganda) to the impacts of increasingly severe and frequent drought. The sub-catchments are in the arid and semi-arid areas where communities face multiple challenges including recurrent droughts and floods and resource use conflicts (the main economic activities being pastoralism and agro-pastoralism). Limited livelihood options for the communities cause them to over-rely on the natural resources, leading to the degradation of land and water and thus loss of ecosystem resilience and weakening of household adaptive capacity. Vulnerabilities are made worse by weak governance and inadequate use of evidence and knowledge in land and water planning and management. During Phase1 successful approaches were implemented improving natural and engineere infrastructure around water points and strengthening water resource management processes. The activities contributed towards improved availability and access of clean water (also reducing diseases) thus improving the communities’ adaptive capacity.